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科技翻译例文-冲动式涡轮机

 In an impulse turbine steam is admitted through a nozzle and directed against one or more rows of blades. Prior to passing through this nozzle, the steam is at high pressure but low velocity. The nozzle normally consists of a convergent and divergent section. In the former, the steam suffers a drop in pressure, but its velocity is increased. The function of the divergent section is to reduce to a minimum the tendency of the fluid to turbulence, and thus to ensure that the fluid flow is as smooth possible.


On emerging from the nozzle at its maximum velocity, the steam impinges on the row of moving blades which project radially from the turbine shaft. In this axial-flow type of turbine, the steam flow is along the axis of rotation of the shaft, and therefore the blades radiate outwords from the shaft. On entering the blades, which are set at a definite angle to the steam flow, the steam is deflected from its original path. In being deflected, it exerts an impulsive force on the blades, which causes them to rotate. While passing over the blades, the steam suffers a slight reduction in velocity through friction. In a simple turbine, it is then passed out into the atmosphere, or to a condenser, where it is condensed and led back to the boiler.

However, after leaving the blades of the turbine, the steam still possesses a considerable velocity, and this may be utilised in another type of turbine by passing it through a series of two or more turbine wheels. This is known as velocity-compounding. On passing through the first row of moving blades, the steam encounters a row of stationary blades which deflect the steam on to a second row of moving blades, and so on. Each time part of the kinetic energy of the steam is lost through friction, and therefore the velocity of the steam is progressively reduced. In order to compensate for this, the blades in each successive row are made progressively larger in cross-section, and their pitch is increased. In this way, a larger proportion of the kinetic energy of the steam can be utilised than in the simple turbine.

Another type of turbine in common use is known as the pressure- compounded turbine. It incorporates several rows of blades, but each one is enclosed between diaphragms to form a separate pressure stage. After passing through the first set of blades, the steam is directed through nozzles set in the succeeding diaphragm, and inpinges on the following row of blades.

参考译文

冲动式涡轮机

在冲动式涡轮机中,蒸汽通过喷咀向一列或多列叶片喷射。蒸汽在经过喷咀之前,压力大但速度低。喷咀通常由收缩部分和扩张部分构成。气流流过收缩部分时,压力下降,但速度提高。扩张部分的作用在于使流体变成湍流的趋势成小到最低程度,因此,可保证流体的流动尽可能平稳。

当蒸汽以最髙速度从喷咀里喷出时,便冲击一列呈辐射状安装在润轮机主轴上的动叶片。 在这种轴流式涡轮机中,蒸汽总是沿主轴的旋转轴向流动的。因此,叶片由主轴向外呈辐射状展开,当蒸汽进入同蒸 汽液成一定角度的叶片时,就被迫改变原来的运动方向。在被迫改变方向时,蒸汽对叶片施加冲击力,使之转动。蒸汽通过叶片时,由于摩擦的作用其速度稍稍降低。在简单的涡轮机中,蒸汽被排入大气,或进入冷凝器冷凝成水后流回锅炉。

然而,当蒸汽离开涡轮机的叶片之后,仍然具有相当大的速度;因此,可在另一 种涡轮机中,使蒸汽连续通过两个或多个涡轮机叶轮继续加以利用,这就叫速度复合。蒸汽在通过第一列动叶片之后 ,立即碰到一列静叶片,将蒸汽偏向第二列动叶片,以此类推。蒸汽的动能每次都因摩擦而损失一部分,因此,蒸汽的速度逐渐减小。为了弥补这一缺点,可将随后各列叶片的剖面依次做得大些,节距也加宽些,这样,蒸汽动能的利用率较之简单涡轮机上要髙些。

另一种通用的涡轮机称为压力多级式涡轮机,它装有几列叶片,每列叶片之间有隔板分隔,形成一个分离的压力级。蒸汽流过第一组叶片之后,依次通过装在下一个隔板里的喷咀冲击下一列叶片。
 
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